The U.S. recorded a case of monkeypox in Massachusetts on Wednesday, a rare disease typically found in Africa. A small number of confirmed or suspected
cases have also been reported recently in the United Kingdom, Portugal, and Spain.
The sudden surge of cases has prompted concern from public health professionals around the world. On Wednesday, the World Health Organization said it was sending an incident team to respond to the UK outbreak.
“Monkeypox usually does not occur globally,” Dr. Anne W. Rimoin, a professor of epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, told USA TODAY. Rimoin, who has extensively studied monkeypox and other infectious diseases in Central Africa, said such outbreaks are "rare and unusual occurrence."
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Although most people recover from the virus, it can be dangerous and fatal in some cases, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Here’s all you need to know about the disease:
Monkeypox is a rare disease that comes from the same family of viruses as smallpox. The virus was first discovered in 1958 in colonies of research monkeys, according to the CDC.
The human first case of the virus was identified in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Most monkeypox infections today still occur there, but the disease has also been reported in several other central and western African countries, the CDC said.
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Monkeypox usually spreads to people from infected animals like rodents. Human-to-human transmission is possible but less common, the World Health Organization said. The virus can also spread through contaminated materials.
The main disease carrier of monkeypox is still unknown, although some experts suspect African rodents play a part in transmission, the CDC said.
In parts of central and west Africa, people can be exposed to the virus through bites or scratches from rodents and small mammals, preparing wild game, or having contact with an infected animal or animal products.
The virus doesn’t spread easily between people, although human-to-human transmission typically happens through large respiratory droplets. Those droplets typically can’t travel more than a few feet, so prolonged face-to-face contact is required to spread monkeypox, according to the CDC.
Britain’s Health Security Agency said the country’s latest cases have been seen “predominantly in gay, bisexual or men who have sex with men.” Monkeypox is not known to be a sexually transmitted disease, but it can spread through close contact with infected people, their bodily fluids, clothing, or bedsheets, according to the CDC.
Monkeypox typically begins with flu-like symptoms and swollen lymph nodes, the CDC said. Monkeypox symptoms are typically similar but milder than smallpox symptoms.
Early symptoms include fever, muscle aches, chills, and fatigue. In more severe cases, a rash can develop, often on the face and genitals, resembling those seen in chickenpox and smallpox.
Painful and itchy lesions can form across the body, before eventually becoming scabs and falling off.
Those infected with monkeypox usually begin experiencing symptoms seven to 14 days after infection, the CDC said. The illness usually lasts several weeks.
Most people recover from monkeypox within weeks, but the disease can be fatal, according to the World Health Organization.
Scientists have identified two forms of the virus: the West African clade and the Congo Basin clade. The West African clade is less fatal, with deaths occurring in about one percent of infections. The Congo Basin clade can cause death in as many as 1 in 10 people who contract the disease, the World Health Organization said.
While data is preliminary, Rimoin says the current outbreaks appear to be connected with the less-deadly West African clade.
Jimmy Whitworth, a professor of international public health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, told Reuters that the virus likely won’t reach the same level of infections and deaths COVID-19 has.
"This isn't going to cause a nationwide epidemic like COVID did, but it's a serious outbreak of a serious disease – and we should take it seriously," Whitworth said.
Rimoin cautioned against comparisons to COVID-19 — in part because monkeypox is not a novel virus: "We’re not dealing with a completely novel pathogen that has never been studied before.”
Rimoin said monkeypox is generally thought to have a low reproductive number, based on previous outbreaks — meaning rapid spread is believed to be unlikely. But further study is needed because the spread of the virus can vary based on a wide variety of conditions.
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Yes. A vaccine developed against smallpox has been approved for monkeypox, and several anti-virals also appear to be effective. But, according to the CDC, there is no proven, safe treatment for monkeypox virus infection.
Rimoin said that the eradication of smallpox has left the globe vulnerable to outbreaks of related viruses, like monkeypox. Since smallpox vaccines aren't widely given, the immune protection they provide is lacking for billions around the globe.
The CDC says monkeypox cases in the United States are very rare. Wednesday’s case in Massachusetts is the first U.S. monkeypox case this year, according to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health.
Texas and Maryland each reported a case in 2021 in people that traveled to Nigeria.
In 2003, health experts identified 47 confirmed and probable cases of monkeypox across six states — Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin — according to the CDC. Officials traced the cases back to pet prairie dogs that were infected after being housed near imported small mammals from Ghana.
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The 2003 outbreak was the first time human monkeypox was reported outside Africa.
No deaths occurred as a result of that outbreak, Rimoin said.
The Massachusetts Department of Public Health said Wednesday’s case poses no risk to the public. But Rimoin said the recent casesare an “important reminder that an infection anywhere is potentially an infection everywhere.”
Contributing: The Associated Press
This article originally appeared on USA TODAY: 'Rare and unusual' monkeypox cases are causing global concern. Here's what we know.